Osteoporosis is a common condition affecting the bones. It is characterized by a reduced bone strength and an increased risk of fractures. It occurs due to the loss of bone mineral density. Women are particularly more prone to develop osteoporosis after menopause. The immunological causes of osteoporosis can contribute to further loss of bone mineral density.
Women tend to develop osteoporosis after menopause due to the decline in the production of the female reproductive hormone estrogen. The bone loss caused due to reduced estrogen levels can become faster in the presence of immunological causes of osteoporosis.
Hence, there is a need to understand the role of the immune system in the development of this condition. Here is a brief discussion about the immunological abnormalities that could contribute to a higher risk of osteoporosis.
Immunological abnormalities that can contribute to the causes of osteoporosis
Imbalances in the levels of hormones can increase the risk of osteoporosis in both men and women. Research studies have revealed that the deficiency of estrogen in women and the abnormal level of parathyroid hormones in men and women are the common causes of osteoporosis.
There is substantial evidence to indicate that bone remodeling processes are regulated and finely balanced by the subtle changes in the pro-inflammatory substances released by the immune cells. Similarly, the inhibitory cytokines produced by the immune system also play a role in modifying the cellular components that can affect bone formation and bone loss.
Research studies have also suggested that the receptor activators of the nuclear factor‐κB or the imbalances in the immune system due to inflammation or infection could contribute to faster bone loss.
These factors linked to immune system functions could reduce the ability of the body to form new bone cells. It may also lead to the loss of calcium from the bones making the bones weak and spongy.
Hence, it is important to be aware of the role of the immune system and take appropriate steps to correct the abnormalities to prevent osteoporosis and fractures.
Activity of osteoclasts
Research studies have successfully highlighted the characteristics between the immune system and bones that can worsen the causes of osteoporosis.
The osteoclasts, the cells that stimulate the breakdown of bone tissues, are derived from the myeloid precursor cells that also give rise to myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages.
Osteoclasts also exhibit a similar lifecycle as that of dendritic cells and are regulated by transcription factors, cytokines, and pro-inflammatory mediators.
On the other hand, osteoblasts, bone-forming cells are derived from the mesenchymal stem cells.
The stimulation of the activities of the osteoclasts by osteoblasts and the activation of the osteoblasts by osteoclasts is referred to as coupling. Coupling plays a critical role in determining the speed of bone loss in relation to the speed of bone formation.
Both of these activities are complementary to each other and are continuously controlled by the immune cells. Abnormalities in the immune cells could stimulate the activities of the osteoclasts. With adequate stimulation of the osteoblasts due to which the rate of bone loss would exceed the rate of bone formation. This can trigger the development of osteoporosis.
Chronic inflammatory reactions
Research studies have revealed that the incidence of osteoporosis induced fractures could be higher in patients who suffer from abnormal endocrine mechanisms. These endocrine mechanisms are regulated by the immune system through its ability to cause inflammatory damage to bone tissues.
The excessive production of inflammatory cytokines by the immune cells could influence the balance between the bone formation and bone resorption processes. This state is further accelerated by the chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammatory state associated with aging.
Furthermore, other processes controlled by the immune system such as oxidative stress and the production of the advanced glycation end products can also contribute to inflammation and bone loss thus worsening the causes of osteoporosis.
Hence, it is advisable to take steps to correct immune system functions in order to regulate bone formation and bone loss processes. Men and women are advised to use immunity-modulating supplements such as BioPro-Plus to help support optimum functioning of the immune cells.
Regular use of BioPro-Plus in combination with the consumption of calcium and vitamin D-rich foods could help men and women to prevent immunological abnormalities, the deficiency of nutrients and inhibit the common causes of osteoporosis.
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