Protecting lesions on the skin and other parts of the body against infective organisms is one of the most critical guidelines often given to patients for improving wound healing and preventing complications. Exposure to bacteria and other microorganisms often leads to suppuration and other complications that can slow down how fast your body can heal wounds. It can also cause the wound to spread deeper as the infectious organisms worsen the damage to the affected tissues. This is why protecting wounds against infective organisms is highly recommended for improving wound healing.
However, as we mentioned previously, some bacteria can actually be useful for supporting the healing processes of the body. These bacteria play a role in healing ulcers, wounds, and other damaged tissues of the body.
There is a need to create awareness about the benefits of bacteria in wound healing so that more effective therapies can be discovered for managing lesions.
Here is a brief description of the various mechanisms by which bacteria help to heal wounds, uclers, and other damaged tissues of the body.
How Bacteria Help to Heal Wounds
1. They Create a Wound Microbiome
The skin and gut microbiome, due to their dynamic nature, play a vital role in accelerating wound healing. A diverse wound microbiome can create a detrimental effect on wound healing, although, by contrast, it may also promote successful healing.
The disruptions in the skin and gut microbiome can allow the bacteria to take advantage of the new environment, thus providing optimal conditions for their colonization and growth in the affected tissues. The elevation of microbial load can, hence, result in infections, and high diversity of skin commensals, as noted in healthy microbial colonization.
However, these mechanisms can also trigger the adaptation of the local immune response, thus promoting tissue repair.
This means that the presence of certain bacteria could modify the wound environment thereby resolving bacterial wound infections. This suggests that some bacteria could be functionally important for improving wound closure speed.
Additionally, following a tissue injury, the signals from skin commensals can produce certain immune responses. These responses from the bacteria can accelerate wound closure by contributing to skin inflammation as well as T cell–independent repair responses. This marks the importance of bacteria in wound healing.
2. They Limit Inflammation to Heal Wounds
Inflammation is considered a double double-edged sword as it is both supports as well as inhibits efficient wound-healing mechanisms of the body.
While acute inflammation is necessary for initiating an immune response needed to repair the damaged tissues, chronic and widespread inflammation can result in persistent injury to the part thereby preventing healing and allowing the wound to penetrate deeper.
Some bacteria have been found to play a role in limiting inflammation thereby reducing the risk of persistent injury.
For example, a bacterium called S. epidermidis is found to promote TLR-2 signaling and the production of lipoteichoic acid, thereby regulating inflammatory mechanisms after injury. This can favor the transition from the phase of inflammation into the phase of proliferation thus promoting wound healing.
These benefits of bacteria are complemented by silver-containing wound dressings that are found to create an effective barrier against secondary infections. Nano silver can produce a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect, when used topically or orally. The oral use of silver-based products can also boost immunity and support the faster healing of wounds.
3. They Help Heal Wounds Via Protection from Pathogens
Some species of bacteria have been found to help in faster wound healing by protecting the affected tissues against other harmful pathogens. For example; studies have revealed that S. epidermidis could engage the defense components of the adaptive immune system, especially commensal-specific T lymphocytes, which, in turn, can provide protection from infectious pathogens and also support faster skin wound closure.
S. epidermidis may also speed up wound healing by promoting the processes of re-epithelialization and granulation in the affected tissues.
The mechanisms of inflammatory stimulation through bacterial colonization are found to be beneficial in most situations. The change in the wound environment and the alterations in the host defense system brought about by some bacteria are considered critical components of healthy wound healing and the prevention of common complications such as ulceration.
Several studies have provided evidence linking the presence of healthy bacteria in the skin and gut microbiome and faster wound healing. The ability of bacteria to support wound healing can be further enhanced by the use of silver-based products. The oral and topical use of nano silver could speed up the healing and repair mechanisms in the affected tissues and reduce the risk of complications to a great extent.