Guillain-Barré syndrome is a disorder affecting the nerves due to which patients experience loss of motor functions, especially in the extremities. The common causes of Guillain-Barre syndrome include immunological abnormalities. It occurs when the body’s immune system fails to recognize the nerves as the body’s own tissues and attacks them. Weakness or tingling in the legs is usually the first sign of this condition.
The loss of motor functions caused due to Guillain-Barre syndrome can spread upwards rapidly, eventually paralyzing the whole body. It can also lead to weakness of the respiratory muscles resulting in difficulty in breathing. These complications of Guillain-Barré syndrome can result in life-threatening consequences. Here is a brief discussion about the role of the immune system in Guillain-Barré syndrome and the effective ways of preventing it.
What is the role of the immune system in triggering the causes of Guillain-Barré syndrome?
Autoimmune disorders and the causes of Guillain-Barré syndrome
Guillain-Barré syndrome or GBS is considered an autoimmune disorder as it occurs due to the inability of the immune cells to recognize the tissues of the peripheral nervous system as its own. It is usually triggered due to an abnormal immune response to a pathogen.
Several pathogens are known to trigger the development of GBS; yet not all patients infected with the same pathogens suffer from this disease. This indicates that the risk of developing GBS due to the exposure to a particular pathogen depends on the individual’s response to it.
A patient is more likely to develop GBS following an infection if his or her immune system produces an abnormal response. At the same time, the same pathogen may not cause GBS in another person if his immune system is working efficiently.
This suggests that the risk of GBS can be avoided if the immunological causes of Guillain-Barré syndrome are identified and corrected.
Role of macrophages and the causes of Guillain-Barré syndrome
Research studies aimed at evaluating the harmful or beneficial role of macrophages in GBS have revealed interesting findings. It has been found that the acute weakness in the legs and hyporeflexia or areflexia caused due to GBS represents demyelination of the nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused due to a CD4+ T cell-mediated inflammatory response of the immune system.
Macrophages have been classified into 2 major phenotypes including proinflammatory macrophages and anti-inflammatory macrophages. These 2 subsets of macrophages can determine the risk of initiation of GBS.
Macrophages can exert an inflammatory as well as an anti-inflammatory response by secreting both pro or anti-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. It can trigger the activation of T cells to induce an immune response that results in inflammation and demyelination of the nerves. At the same time, it can also promote disease recovery by preventing the secretion of anti-inflammatory agents.
This dual action of macrophages suggests that the role of the immune system in triggering the causes of Guillain-Barré syndrome needs to be explored at depth to provide an effective therapeutic approach to managing this disease.
Role of immunotherapy and the causes of Guillain-Barre syndrome
Research studies have found that the host factors which regulate the inflammatory processes are also involved in triggering the development of autoimmune diseases such as GBS. The locally and systemically released cytokines by the immune system and their involvement in the immune-mediated axonal damage and demyelination of the peripheral nerves play a role in the pathogenesis of GBS. Hence, it is essential that corrective measures are taken to regulate the immune system in order to protect the functions of the nerves and prevent GBS.
Circumstantial evidence has revealed the immunological causes of Guillain-Barre syndrome that can influence the pathogenesis of this condition thus providing insight to guide immunotherapy.
Research studies have suggested that immunotherapy in the forms of immunoglobulin and plasma exchange can control the initial presentation of GBS and the electrophysiologic and clinical prognostic factors of this disease. The findings of this research study have emphasized on correcting the immune system dysfunctions to control the causes of Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Patients are advised to seek comprehensive treatment to support the immune system functions to prevent Guillain-Barre syndrome.
The use of BioPro-Plus is recommended to help with the management of this condition.
It is a nutritional supplement containing biologically active thymic proteins and zinc gluconate, which can help to support the regulation of the response of immune cells and help facilitate the cell-mediated immune functions to the infective pathogens thus reducing the risk of GBS. BioPro-Plus can assist in controlling the immunological causes of Guillain-Barre syndrome and help to prevent the development of this condition. Read more about How BioPro-Plus Works.